All the sounds of speech can be split into two categories, vowels & consonants. Very simply, in most consonants, two parts of the mouth come in contact with each other, disrupting the air flow from your lungs, while vowels change the shape of your mouth (& nose), & allow air to flow undisrupted through that specific shape.
In English, there are around 30 vowels and diphthongs (two vowels together) & about 25 regularly used consonants, but other languages can have up to 50 more different sounds, many of which native English speakers have never heard or learned!
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